Ending racism in America and Europe would require the changing of the Gods or the physical features of God. The God of America is from Roman and Greek mythology. It is a Nordic white God. The God of Abraham is Nubian, with Nubian features and characteristics. Genesis 1:26-27 suggests that the Gods made man in their own image, male and female, Nubian in features and characteristics. The Nordic Gods come with ideas of superior and inferior beings. England definitely separated the classes of people into the royals and the inferior classes. The Nordic peoples stole the Nubian religions and gave the Father, The Son and The Holy Spirit characteristics in their own image. The worth of a man is determined to the extent he looks like the Nordic God, with flowing long hair and blues eyes. Nubians are peoples of color from the land blessed by the Sun and color. Racism is based on negative feelings and beliefs about people who do not look Nordic or share Nordic customs and beliefs. England transferred her Nordic God and customs into her colonies, and along with it the belief that Anglo Saxons were destined by divine order to rule and be served. People in the British North American Colonies, later to become the United States of America judges a man on his color and features. The world is Nubian, but Nubian without history or power. In order to end racism, color must be restored to God, the Prophets and the Bible.American churches can have talks, seminars and sermons on living together in peace as one family of man, if however, man does not look like his God, he will feel inferior within himself, and will be treated by the priviledged Nordic people as inferior. Michaelangelo painted the image and color of the Nordic God, and all Christians carry that image in their minds. Racism too is in the mind heart and spirit, and must be addressed at its core.

God comes to man in Negroid form, for the Black  and Brown man, in Mongoloid form for the Yellow and Red man and Causoid form for the Nordic and Aryian man. Each man experiences the one God through their culturally and Faithbased belief systems. There are many Paths of Faith, and each man’s path is just as valid as any other mans. And So It Is.

 

In my home I have statues of Biblical characters. I wake up with the Black Madona and go to sleep with the Nubian Christ. I have Nubian religious statues all over my home for a feeling of peace and Blessings. The religion of Abraham does not encourage statues and paintings, but this works for me.

The Kingdom of Kush or Cush was an ancient Nubian state centered on the confluences of the Blue Nile, White Nile and River Atbara in what is now the Republic of Sudan.

Established after the Bronze Age collapse and the disintegration of the New Kingdom of Egypt, it was centered at Napata in its early phase. After king Kashta (“the Kushite”) invaded Egypt in the 8th century BC, the Kushite kings ruled as Pharaohs of the Twenty-fifth dynasty of Egypt for a century, until they were expelled by Psamtik I in 656 BC.

During Classical Antiquity, the Nubian capital was at Meroe. In early Greek geography, the Meroitic kingdom was known as Ethiopia. The Nubian kingdom at Meroe persisted until the 4th century AD, when it fell to the expanding kingdom of Axum.

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[edit] Name

Kash in hieroglyphs
       

.
kꜢš
Kash

The native name of the kingdom was likely kaš, recorded in Egyptian as kꜢš.

The name Kash is probably connected to Cush in the Hebrew Bible (Hebrew: כוש), son of Ham (Genesis 10:6).

The conventional name “kingdom of Kush” was introduced in 19th-century Egyptology.

 Origins

During the New Kingdom of Egypt, Nubia (Kash) was an Egyptian province, governed by the Viceroy of Kush. With the disintegration of the New Kingdom around 1070 BCE, Kash became an independent kingdom centered at Napata.[2]

The Kushites buried their monarchs along with all their courtiers in mass graves. Archaeologists refer to these practices as the “Pan-grave culture”.[3] The Kushites also built burial mounds and pyramids, and shared some of the same gods worshiped in Egypt, especially Ammon and Isis.

25th Dynasty of Egypt

Main article: Twenty-fifth Dynasty of Egypt

Maximum extent of Kush in 700 BC

Sudan Meroe Pyramids – World Heritage UNESCO[4].

In Ancient Egypt, Libyan princes had taken control of the delta under Shoshenq I in 945 BCE, founding the so-called Libyan or Bubastite dynasty that would rule for some 200 years. Sheshonq also gained control of southern Egypt by placing his family members in important priestly positions. However, Libyan control began to erode as a rival dynasty in the delta arose in Leontopolis, and Kushites threatened from the south. Around 727 BCE the Kushite king Piye invaded northward, seizing control of Thebes and eventually the Delta.[5] His dynasty, the Twenty-fifth dynasty of Egypt, continued until about 653 BCE. The 25th dynasty was based at Napata, in what is now The Sudan. Alara is universally regarded as the founder of the 25th Kushite dynasty by his successors. The power of the 25th Dynasty reached a climax under the pharaohs Piye and Taharka.

Pharaoh Taharka spent half his time as ruler of Egypt restoring its earlier cultural achievements while also fending off Assyrian power in the east. In 674 BCE, he defeated an invading Assyrian army under the leadership of Esarhaddon. Three years later, he would be defeated in three battles that would force Kush out of Egypt altogether. Why the Kushites chose to enter Egypt at this crucial point of foreign domination is subject to debate. Archaeologist Timmothy Kendall offers his own hypotheses, connecting it to a claim of legitimacy associated with Gebel Barkal.[6] Kendall cites the stele of Pharaoh Piye, which states that “Amun of Napata granted me to be ruler of every foreign country,” and “Amun in Thebes granted me to be ruler of the Black Land (Kmt)”. Noteworthy is that according to Kendall, “foreign lands” in this regard seems to include Lower Egypt while Kmt seems to refer to a united Upper Egypt and Nubia.[7]

 Move to Meroë

Aspelta moved the capital to Meroë, considerably farther south than Napata, possibly in 591 BCE. [8]

Historians believe it was the attraction of iron working that drove the Kushites to move their capital south to Meroë where, unlike at Napata, there were large forests that could fire the blast furnaces. The arrival of Greek merchants throughout the region also meant that Kush was no longer dependent on trade along the Nile. Instead, it could export its goods to the Red Sea and the Greek trading colonies there. The Kushites used the animal-driven water wheel to increase productivity and create a surplus, particularly during the Napatan-Meroitic Kingdom.[9]

In about 300 BCE the move to Meroë was made more complete when the monarchs began to be buried there, instead of at Napata. One theory is that this represents the monarchs breaking away from the power of the priests at Napata. Diodorus Siculus tells a story about a Meroitic ruler named Ergamenes who was ordered by the priests to kill himself, but broke tradition and had the priests executed instead. Ergamenes may refer to the first ruler to be buried at Meroë with a similar name such as Arqamani,[10] who ruled many years after the royal cemetery was opened at Meroë. Another theory is that the capital had always been based at Meroë. During this same period, Kushite authority may have extended some 1,500 km along the Nile River valley from the Egyptian frontier in the north to areas far south of modern Khartoum and probably also substantial territories to the east and west.[11]

Kushite civilisation continued for several centuries. In the Napatan Period Egyptian hieroglyphs were used: at this time writing seems to have been restricted to the court and temples.[12] From the 2nd century BC there was a separate Meroitic writing system.[12] This was an alphabetic script with 23 signs used in a hieroglyphic form (mainly on monumental art) and in a cursive form.[12] The latter was widely used; so far some 1278 texts using this version are known (Leclant 2000). The script was deciphered by Griffith, but the language behind it is still a problem, with only a few words understood by modern scholars.[12] It is not as yet possible to connect the Meroitic language with other known languages.[12]

Strabo describes a war with the Romans in the 1st century BC. After the initial victories of Kandake (or “Candace”) Amanirenas against Roman Egypt, the Kushites were defeated and Napata sacked.[13] Remarkably, the destruction of the capital of Napata was not a crippling blow to the Kushites and did not frighten Candace enough to prevent her from again engaging in combat with the Roman military. Indeed,it seems that Petronius’s attack might have had a revitalizing influence on the kingdom. Just three years later, in 22 BCE, a large Kushite force moved northward with intention of attacking Qasr Ibrim. Alerted to the advanced, Petronius again marched south and managed to reach Qasr Ibrim and bolster its defences before the invading Kushites arrived. Although the ancient sources give no description of the ensuing battle, we know that at some point the Kushites sent ambassadors to negotiate a peace settlement with Petronius. By the end of the second campaign, however, Petronius was in no mood to deal further with the Kushites.[14] The Kushites succeeded in negotiating a peace treaty on favourable terms.[13]

The kingdom of Kush began to fade as a power by the 1st or 2nd century CE, sapped by the war with the Roman province of Egypt and the decline of its traditional industries.[15]

References

   
  1. ^ a b Stearns, Peter N., ed (2001). “(II.B.4.) East Africa, c. 2000–332 B.C.E.”. The Encyclopedia of World History: Ancient, Medieval, and Modern, Chronologically Arranged (6th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. p. 32. ISBN9780395652374. http://books.google.com/books?id=MziRd4ddZz4C&pg=PA32
  2. ^ Morkot, Roger G. “On the Priestly Origin of the Napatan Kings: The Adaptation, Demise and Resurrection of Ideas in Writing Nubian History” in O’Connor, David and Andrew Reid, eds. Ancient Egypt in Africa (Encounters with Ancient Egypt) (University College London Institute of Archaeology Publications) Left Coast Press (1 Aug 2003) ISBN 978-1598742053 p.151
  3. ^ Pan Grave Culture – By K. Kris Hirst
  4. ^ Sur le site de L’UNESCO
  5. ^ Shaw (2002) p. 345
  6. ^ Kendall, T.K., 2002. Napatan Temples: a Case Study from Gebel Barkal. The Mythological Nubian Origin of Egyptian Kingship and the Formation of the Napatan State. Tenth International Conference of Nubian Studies. Rome, September 9–14, 2002.
  7. ^ Ibid
  8. ^ Festus Ugboaja Ohaegbulam (1 October 1990). Towards an understanding of the African experience from historical and contemporary perspectives. University Press of America. p. 66. ISBN9780819179418. http://books.google.com/books?id=GX1fNzyNO5AC&pg=PA66. Retrieved 17 March 2011. 
  9. ^ William Y. Adams, Nubia: Corridor to Africa (Princeton University Press, 1977) 346-7, and William Y. Adams,
  10. ^ Fage, J. D.: Roland Anthony Oliver (1979) The Cambridge History of Africa, Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-21592-7 p. 228 [1]
  11. ^ Edwards, page 141
  12. ^ a b c d e Meroitic script
  13. ^ a b Arthur E. Robinson, “The Arab Dynasty of Dar For (Darfur): Part II”, Journal of the Royal African Society (Lond). XXVIII: 55-67 (October, 1928)
  14. ^ At empire’s edge: exploring Rome’s Egyptian frontier By Robert B. Jackson p. 149
  15. ^ The Story of Africa| BBC World Service

[edit] Sources

  • Edwards, David N. (2004). The Nubian Past. London: Routledge. pp. 348 Pages. ISBN0-41536-987-8
  • Leclant, Jean (2004). The empire of Kush: Napata and Meroe. London: UNESCO. pp. 1912 Pages. ISBN1-57958-245-1
  • Oliver, Roland (1978). The Cambridge history of Africa. Vol. 2, From c. 500 BC to AD 1050. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 858 Pages. ISBN0-52121-592-3
  • Oliver, Roland (1975). The Cambridge History of Africa Volume 3 1050 – c. 1600. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 816 Pages. ISBN0-52120-981-1
  • Shillington, Kevin (2004). Encyclopedia of African History, Vol. 1. London: Routledge. pp. 1912 Pages. ISBN1-57958-245-1
  • Török, László (1998). The Kingdom of Kush: Handbook of the Napatan-Meriotic Civilization. Leiden: BRILL. pp. 589 Pages. ISBN9-00410-448-8

[edit] External links

Retrieved from “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kingdom_of_Kush

Categories: Former monarchies of Africa | Former countries in Africa | States and territories established in 1070 BC | Kush | States of Ancient Africa | Ancient peoples | History of Africa | Hebrew Bible nations | African civilizations

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